Authors: Tuchkovenko Yu. S., Sapko O. Yu.
Title: Assessment of the coastal anthropogenic pollution sources impact on water quality in north-western part of Black sea near Odessa
The assessment has been done on the base of the analysis of the data obtained in the last decade on indicators of water quality of the most problematic coastal anthropogenic sources impact causing the coastal water pollution near the city of Odessa (namely, of the activated sludge plant (ASP) “Severnaia” (Nothern) as well as of the marine discharges of drainage and storm waters) and of the changes that took place within XXI century. Consequently, the following conclusions were drawn. As a result of a significant decrease in the volume of municipal sewage, the amount of suspended and organic substances, ammonium nitrogen, supplied by ASP “Severnaya” into the water environment, has decreased, whereas the quantity of nitrites and nitrates significantly has increased. Therefore, the purification technology and equipment used by the activated sludge plant (ASP) “Severnaya” needs to be modernized urgently. Along with the tendency to quality improving of the municipal sewage coming to the coastal sea area through the drainage system, one can find out too that there are cases of illegal discharge of domestic waste water into it. The uncontrolled flow of contaminated sewage through storm water drain outflows leads to a significant deterioration in the quality of sea water not only in the areas of the discharges names above, but also negatively affects the ecological situation in the entire coastal recreational zone of Odessa. Due to the illegal connections of physical and legal entities to the storm water drainage system for discharging domestic sewage, the quality of the water in the areas of storm drain outflows may deteriorate to the level of unpurified sewage waters. One can observe too that there continues to be a water discharge flow through storm water drain system even if there is no rainfalls or atmospheric fallouts. As a consequence, the actions were set to realize the aim of reducing negative influence of drainage and stormwater drainage on the quality of sea water in the coastal recreational zone of the city.
Authors: Tuchkovenko Yu. S., Sapko O. Yu.
Tags: anthropogenic pollution impact sources; Odessa region; the Black Sea; антропогенні джерела забруднення; Одеський район; Чорне море
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Authors: Ivanov S. V., Ruban I. G., Palamarchuk Yu. O.
Title: Quantitative precipitation forecast with radar data assimilation in the HARMONIE model
The further development of the data assimilation system in the operational numerical convective-permitted HARMONIE model is presented. Radar measurements of reflectivity are included in the observational model. In the focus of the study is the following: firstly, the general contribution of radar data assimilation into quantitative forecasts of precipitation; secondly, comparison of the results of numerical experiments obtained with the use of various pre-processing methods of reflectivity in a measurement tracking system. Two methods of pre-processing, such as “simple thinning” and “superobservation” are applied for reducing the amount of input data. Comparison of test numerical experiments with radar data versus reference one, in which the radar measurements are not included in the data assimilation module, is performed, The results show that accounting reflective characteristics of the atmosphere at the model initial conditions allows to increase the accuracy of microphysical processes simulations due to correction of the moisture content in the middle troposphere. For a severe precipitation event, the test experiments provide estimates of 10 mm / 12 hours higher in comparing to the control one. Vertical profiles of moisture content show that the major changes occur in the layer between 850 and 600 hPa. In the precipitation core, rain rate increases roughly at a value of 5-7 mm / h. Correction of moisture content in the middle troposphere leads to increasing quantitative precipitation estimates at the surface and approaching them to retrospective analysis values. However, the results of numerical experiments are sensitive to the choice of a pre-processing approach and internal parameters. Optimization of this choice by accounting for the resolution of the model grid and spatial features of the atmospheric flow will be performed at the next stage of the study.
Authors: Ivanov S. V., Ruban I. G., Palamarchuk Yu. O.
Tags: atmospheric Harmonie model; data assimilation; precipitation; weather radar; асиміляція даних; метеорадар; модель атмосфери Harmonie; опади
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Authors: Slizhe M. O., Semenova I. G.
Title: Spatiotemporal distribution and meteorological characteriatics of hot dry winds in Ukraine at the end of XX ‒ beginning of XXI century
The hot dry winds in Ukraine are dangerous phenomenon, which can significantly impact to crop yields. This winds damages of crops, which active development occurs in the spring and summer time. Their impacts during the short time can reduce or destroy the future harvest.
The modern research of spatial and temporal distribution of the hot dry winds and its meteorological characteristics on the territory of Ukraine in the current changed climate is an actual problem, because this phenomenon occurs almost every growing season.
In the paper describes the features of spatiotemporal distribution of the hot dry winds over Ukraine from April to August for the period of 1995-2015. The results of the analysis of interannual variability and seasonal frequency of the dry hot wind with different duration are presented for the stations, located in different agro-climatic zones of Ukraine. The average monthly, medium-term values of temperature, relative humidity, wind speed during dry wind were analyzed.
The average monthly, medium-term values of temperature, relative humidity, and wind speed under dry wind were analyzed. The values for maximum temperature, minimum relative air humidity and maximum of hot dry winds speed at stations were selected. The average temperature during the formation of hot dry winds matter most in Steppe zone, with its maximum value in individual locations reached 40 °C.
The average relative humidity during the hot dry winds varies little during the growing season, the lowest values were recorded in spring in Polesie and forest-Steppe zone and in summer in Steppe zone.
In all agro-climatic zones of greatest average speed of hot dry winds is observed in April. The maximum speed of hot dry wind in some stations reached 18 m/s.
Also there were analyzed the directions of the hot dry winds. The hot dry winds directions is vary considerably in agro-climatic zones and months, but prevailing directions is identify directions of southern and eastern quadrant, corresponding to the southern and western periphery of anticyclones.
Authors: Slizhe M. O., Semenova I. G.
Tags: hot dry winds; temperature and humidity regime; wind regime; режим вітру; суховій; суховійний період; температурно-вологісний режим
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Authors: Serga E. N., Serga I. N.
Title: Zones of interactions within the near-surfase layer of the atmosphere in North Atlantic. November
To reveal the zones of active interaction between the atmosphere and the ocean in the North Atlantic and to determine the regions causing a significant impact on formation of features of climatic response regimes in the Eastern Europe methods of cluster and component analysis were applied as influencing factors representing characteristics of heat and moisture exchange in the near-surface layer before including them in the imitation model.
Each node of a greed grid of 2,5º 2,5º of the North Atlantic identifies the first three main components describing more than 80% of the total dispersion of the processes of interaction between the underlying surface and the adjacent layer of the atmosphere.
Homogeneous regions were defined in the fields of the main components of the vectors of state of meteorological characteristics in the near-surface layer of the atmosphere in the North Atlantic using the Universal iterative method of data clustering. The article includes a physical and statistical analysis of obtained clustering schemes having a good scientific justification. It shows that the clusters of the first main component have a large-scale nature while the second and third components are of a focal character. Clusters are characterized by the intensity of the processes of interactions in the near-surface layer. The intensity of such processes is characterized by the distribution and values of the weight loads, the mean values of representative vectors and the intracluster dispersion. It determines that the first main component makes the main contribution to the formation of the most of initial meteorological values and the third main component reflects the influence of local features on the interaction processes.
Authors: Serga E. N., Serga I. N.
Tags: air temperature; atmosphere; cluster; latent heat fluxes; main component; representative vector; weight load; атмосфера; вагове навантаження; головна компонента; кластер; приховані потоки тепла; репрезентативний вектор; температура повітря
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Authors: El Hadri Yo., Khokhlov V. M.
Title: Regional climatic models verification for wind speed and cloudiness in Morocco
Currently the annual increase in demand for electricity in Morocco is estimated as 6 %. On the other hand, 100 % of all hydrocarbons consumed in the Morocco are imported. For this reason, the goverment of Morocco has adopted a program for a phased transition from traditional oil and gas energy sources to renewable energy resources. Therefore, the availability of the most reliable information about the future state of the climate is a strategically important point in the development of Morocco’s economy. Today, information about future climate conditions is possible through climate models.
The goal of this study is to verify the regional climate model (RCM) simulation results for the monthly surface wind speed, monthly daily maximum surface wind speed and monthly total cloud fraction in Morocco.
For the RCM verification, retrospective simulations for the period 2011-2016 were used. To verify the RCM projections for wind speed, observations at the five meteorological stations (Sidi Ifni, Tangier, Oujda, Rabat, Meknes) were used as actual series; all the stations are located in different parts of Morocco. For comparison, the results of model simulations at the points closest to the meteorological stations were chosen. As input observations of monthly cloud fraction, the observational data from the satellites Terra and Aqua were used.
Analysis showed that the averages by model ensemble and actual series have similar values. The RCMs provide better results for the modeled wind speed at stations located in flat areas in comarison to stations located in mountains or on coasts with a curved coastline. At the same time, it can be argued that the models do not sufficiently take into account local effects leading to the formation of a cloud regime in certain regions. As an example, the results of verification of cloud patterns in the Sidi Ifni area can be used.
Generally, despite the fact that the models in different regions of Morocco reflect the climatic parameters with varying degrees of accuracy, their results can be used in order to analyze future states of the climate system in this region.
Authors: El Hadri Yo., Khokhlov V. M.
Tags: загальна кількість хмарності; максимальна швидкість вітру; Марокко; регіональні кліматичні моделі; швидкість вітру
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Authors: Лобода Н. С., Пилип’юк В. В.
Title: Climate changes and their possible consequences in formation of water quality (on the example of Psyol and Vorskla rivers)
In the given work the actual scientific and methodical questions of the estimation of the influence of modern changes of climatic characteristics on the formation of structural hydrochemical composition of surface waters and indicators of river water quality were investigated.
The basis of the calculations is the research of changes in the basic hydrochemical parameters (chlorine ions, sodium, magnesium, iron, silicon, and also concentrations of oxygen dissolved in water, phosphates, nitrites, nitrates, mineralization) of the water of the Psyol and Vorskla rivers and quantitative estimates of the suitability of the water of given rivers for the main ways of water usage.
The main pollutants were also identified, the degree of pollution of water by individual chemicals in the form of multiplicity of exceeding the normative maximum permissible concentrations (MPC) was estimated and the relation between the level of pollution of the river and the existing abiotic factors of the aquatic ecosystems is shown.
The tendency towards reduction of water resources according to the climate scenario A1B is determined as well as growth of air temperatures during the warm and cold time of the year. Inter-connection of these factors with processes of water quality formation is shown. The obtained results showed the existence of important connections between the above-described climatic and hydrological factors as well as hydrochemical and qualitative characteristics of the surface mode of water bodies of the Dnipro river.
The scientific value of obtained results is particularly valuable because the studied watercourses (the Psyol and Vorskla rivers) have a transboundary status and a special mode for the usage of quantitative and qualitative indicators of their aquatic and biological resources within the limits of international environmental legislation.
Authors: Лобода Н. С., Пилип’юк В. В.
Tags: changes of temperature conditions; concentration of pollutants; water content changes; water quality indicators; зміни водності; зміни температурного режиму; концентрации загрязняющих веществ; концентрації забруднюючих речовин; показатели качества воды; показники якості води
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- Loboda N. S., Pilipyuk V. V. Ukrayina: Heohrafiya tsiley ta mozhlyvostey ‒ Ukraine: Geography of Goals and Opportunities, 2012, vol. 1, pp. 192-195. (In Ukrainian)
- Loboda N. S. Raschety i obobshcheniya kharakteristik godovogo stoka rek Ukrainy v usloviyakh antropogen-nogo vliyaniya [Calculations and generalizations of the characteristics of annual flow of rivers of Ukraine in the conditions of anthropogenic influence]. Odessa, 2005. 208 p.
Authors: Tuchkovenko Yu. S., Kushnir D. V., Hryb O. M.
Title: Modelling of wind-induced circulation of water and water level denivellation in the Kuialnytskyi Lyman lagoon
Results of 3D hydrodynamic computations are presented to analyse the wind-induced circulation of water and the skewness in the heights of water level marks in the Kuialnytskyi Lyman Lagoon under stationary winds with the speed of 5 m/s and various directions.
The computations were performed using a Delft3D-FLOW model on a curvilinear grid. The model was verified against the data obtained from synchronous measurements of the water level variability, which were conducted at three different points on the lagoon water surface in 2016.
It was found that under winds, which are longitudinal to the meridional lagoon axis, strong, extensive and unidirectional in depth currents are formed along the depth slope in the coastal regions. The direction of these extensive currents corresponds to the meridional component of the wind velocity vector. Gradient compensative bottom currents, directed inversely to the wind direction, are formed along the longitudinal axial line of the lagoon.
Under transversal to the meridional lagoon axis winds, strong, extensive alongshore currents in the central and southern parts of the lagoon are not formed; drift currents and intensity of barotropic circulation on the lagoon water surface weaken; spatial structure of the barotropic water circulation is characterized by the presence of a multitude of small-scale cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies.In the southern and central parts of the lagoon, between its western and eastern shores, circulating cells in the vertical plane are formed in the water column.
It is shown that even relatively weak winds can significantly change the water surface area of the lagoon and thus influence the evaporation volumes.
Authors: Tuchkovenko Yu. S., Kushnir D. V., Hryb O. M.
Tags: modelling; North-Western Black Sea coast; the Kuialnytskyi Lyman Lagoon; water table; wind-induced currents; вітрові течії; водне дзеркало; Куяльницкий лиман; моделювання; Північно-західне Причорномор’я
- Loboda N. S., Gopchenko E. D. (Eds.) Vodnyy rezhym ta hidroekolohichni kharakterystyky Kuyal’nyts’koho lymanu [Water conditions and hydroecological characteristics of the Kuialnytskyi Lyman Lagoon: Proceedings of Odessa State Environmental University]. Odessa: TES, 2016. 332 p.
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- Tuchkovenko Yu. S., Kushnir D. V. Results of numerical modelling of the annual variability of characteristics of hydrological conditions in the Kuialnytskyi Lyman Lagoon. Ukr. gìdrometeorol. ž. – Ukr. hydrometeor. J., 2016, no. 17, pp. 137-148. http://uhmj.odeku.edu.ua/wpcontent/uploads/2016/07/15Tuchkoven_Kushnir.pdf. (in Ukrainian).
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Authors: Kruglyak Yu. А., Kostritskаya L. S.
Title: Thermoelectric phenomena and devices in the generalized model of electron transport
In the tutorial review article intended for researchers, university lecturers and students the thermoelectric Seebeck and Peltier phenomena are considered in the framework of a generalized transport model due to R. Landauer, S. Datta, and M. Lundstrom of modern nanoelectronics within the “bottom – up” approach. The Wiedemann – Franz law and Lorenz numbers as well as the four transport coefficients (specific resistivity, Seebeck and Peltier coefficients, and electronic thermal conductivity) are also qualitatively discussed. Referring to a 3D resistor in the diffusion regime the thermoelectric cooler and energy power generator are analyzed with an account of only electrons as real current carriers as well as with artificial but useful electron/hole conception. Coefficient of performance, power factor and figure of merit for thermoelectric devices are introduced and defined. How transport coefficients depend on the properties of electrotermics are also discussed. Qualitative dependence of the Seebeck coefficient and electronic conductivity from the position of the Fermi level relative to the bottom of the conduction band is demonstrated. Maximization of the power factor near the bottom of the conduction band is shown. As the Fermi level approaches to the bottom of the conduction band and then moves up, the Seebeck coefficient decreases. At the same time, the electronic conductivity increases due to the appearance of an increasing number of conductivity modes. Their product is the power factor, which is maximal in the vicinity of the bottom of the conduction band. The position of the maximum for a specific electrotermics is dependent on the band structure of the conductor and the physics of its scattering centers. It is shown why in practice we try by doping the semiconductor to shift the Fermi level closer to the bottom of the conduction band.
Authors: Kruglyak Yu. А., Kostritskаya L. S.
Tags: nanoelectronics; nanophysics; thermoelectric devices; thermoelectric phenomena; нанофизика; наноэлектроника; термоелектричні пристрої; термоелектричні явища
- Kruglyak Yu. S. Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies, 2013, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 519 – 549. (In Russian)
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Authors: Kruglyak Yu. A., Shtefan N. Z.
Title: Heat transfer by phonons in the generalized transport model
On the basis of Landauer – Datta – Lundstrom transport model the generalized model of heat transfer by phonons is formulated. Similarly to the Fermi window for electron conductivity the concept of the Fermi window for phonon conductivity is introduced and used to obtain the general expression for the lattice thermal conductivity with the quantum of thermoconductance appearing at the very beginning. There are emphasized the similarity and differences in the construction of the theory of electron conductivity and the theory of heat conduction. There are discussed the thermal conductivity of the conductors, the physical sense of proportionality between the thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity at constant volume, the relationship between the transmission coefficient and the mean-free-path, the calculation of the number of phonon modes and density of phonon states, the Debye model of heat conductivity and scattering of phonons, the temperature dependence of the lattice thermal conductivity, the difference between the lattice thermal conductivity and electron conduction, and quantization of thermal conductivity.
In the present review it is emphasized that the concepts used to describe the electron transport can be successfully transferred to the phonon transport. And in both cases the Landauer approach, generalized subsequently by Datta and Lundstrom, allows a quantitative description of transport processes in conductors of any dimension and in all modes of transport from diffusive to ballistic. Lattice thermal conductivity and electronic conductivity are described very similar as far as the shape of corresponding equations. There are, however, two significant differences related to the physics of electron and phonon processes which are also emphasized in the review.
Authors: Kruglyak Yu. A., Shtefan N. Z.
Tags: Debye model; nanoelectronics; nanophysics; phonon modes; phonon scattering; phonon transport; quantum thermal conductivity; transmission coefficient; дифузійно-дрейфова модель; молекулярна електроніка; нанофизика; наноэлектроника; роль контактів; струм насичення
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Authors: Bunyakova Yu.Ya.
Title: Analysis of the current system of environmental taxation in Ukraine and foreign experience
The article analyzes the current system of environmental taxation of economic activity in Ukraine associated with its impact on natural environment. Today’s relevance of environmental taxation and low effectiveness of this tool in regulating the level of environmental safety in Ukraine force to use experience of developed countries, especially of the European Union, where such taxes are implemented in more effective manner. Analysis of foreign experience of applying environmental taxes and charges shows a significant diversity of their types and therefore different effects that can be achieved after their use. It is important to consider this fact when improving environmental taxation in Ukraine. Introduction of a specific type of environmental tax requires detailed
consideration of experience of developed countries, the obtained results and comparing their experience to determine effectiveness and characteristics of a particular tax. The main difference between the national system of environmental taxation and the European one is that mechanisms of its implementation remain to be incomplete when addressing environmental problems and do not create any significant incentives for economic agents when it comes to nature-conservative measures. It is clear that a purely fiscal concept of the mechanism of collecting funds for exploitation of natural resources with ignoring regulatory, restrictive and stimulating functions does not
contribute to the efficient use of natural wealth. It is shown that the current environmental taxation system of Ukraine needs implementation of further reforms and development aimed at reducing negative impact of the national economy on the natural environment, reducing environmental capacity of gross domestic product, stimulating transition to sustainable development.
Authors: Bunyakova Yu.Ya.
Tags: environmental tax; penalties; reform; Tax Code; taxation; the European Union; взимание; Европейский союз; Налоговый кодекс; налогообложение; реформа; экологический налог
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Authors: Youssef El Hadri, Khokhlov V.M.
Title: Mode of the wind speed in Morocco in early XXI century
The energy system in Morocco is strongly dependent on external energy markets. Currently, Morocco imports more than 93% of energy. In 2009, the Moroccan Government has developed a National Energy Strategy containing ways to increase a generation of renewable energy in the country. This study aims to identify features of current wind regime in Morocco in order to assess the resources of wind energy.
The data on the wind speed from 25 meteorological stations in Morocco for the period 2005-2014 were used to calculate the values of annual mean wind speed and the frequency of different wind speeds. The comparison of annual mean wind speed for the periods 1980-1999 and 2005-2014 showed that the recent values have increased especially in 2011-2014.
Light wind prevails at most stations of Morocco. Nevertheless, moderate and fresh wind prevails near the Gibraltar Strait, the Atlantic coast and in the southern part of country. These stations are Tan-Tan and Dakhla located in the southern part of the Atlantic coast. At these stations, the frequency of wind speeds below 5 m/s is the 34% and 17% respectively. This allows concluding that the conditions for wind power plants are favorable in southern part of the Atlantic coast.
Authors: Youssef El Hadri, Khokhlov V.M.
Tags: Frequency; Wind Conditions; wind speed; повторяемость; режим ветра; скорость ветра
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Authors: Ivus G.P., Ahayar E.V., Semergei-Chumachenko А.В., Dmytrenko A.P.
Title: Synoptic processes during formation of low-tropospheric streams over the territory of southern Ukraine in warm half-year
Identification and forecasting of jet streams within at low levels of the atmosphere is one of the challenging tasks of synoptic meteorology. The reason for such difficulties lies in diversity of physical mechanisms causing increased air flow speed in a narrow zone within the boundary layer of the atmosphere.
Specification of the type of macro- and mesoscale baric fields which contribute to formation of low jets can greatly facilitate development of forecasting techniques.
According to radiosonde data low jets in warm half-years of 2001-2010 were detected over two locations (Odessa and Simferopol). Once estimate of their structural parameters had been complete a prevailing wind direction at a stream core and a type of temperature stratification with a studied wind anomaly in place were determined.
Synoptic situations over the territory of south-western Ukraine taking into account the elementary circulation mechanisms proposed by B. L. Dzerdzeevsky, V. M. Kurganskaya and Z. M. Vitvitskaya.were standardized.
A catalogue bringing all the information about structure and conditions of formation of low streams together was developed and compiled.
Circulation processes of warm half-year over the regions in question were characterized as such that favour formation of low-level jet streams.
The most probable macroscale atmospheric processes and types of synoptic situations which create conditions for formation of the most intense low-tropospheric jets over the south-western part of Ukraine were singled out taking into consideration physical and geographical features of research locations.
Authors: Ivus G.P., Ahayar E.V., Semergei-Chumachenko А.В., Dmytrenko A.P.
Tags: elementary circulation mechanism; intensity; lower-level jet streams; standardizing; synoptic processes; интенсивность; синоптические процессы; струйные течение нижних уровней; типизация; элементарный циркуляционный механизм
- Lipіns’kyy V. M., Dyachuk V. A., Babichenko V. M. (Eds) Klimat Ukrayiny [Climate of Ukraine]. Kyyiv: Rayevs’kyy Publ., 2003. 343 p.
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- Ivus G. P., Efimov V. A. Fizika antitsiklogeneza [Physics of Anticycogenesis]. Kyyiv: KNT, 2005. 208 p.
- Ivus G. P. Specializovani prognozy pogody [Specialized Weather Forecast]. Odessa: TES Publ., 2012, 407 p.
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- Means L. L. On Thunderstorm Forecasting in the Central United States. Mon. Wea. Rev., 1952, vol. 80, pp. 165–189.
- Logvinov K. T., Raevskiy A. N., Ayzenberg M. M. Opasnyye gidrometeorologicheskie yavleniya v Ukrainskikh Karpatakh [Dangerous Hydrometeorological Phenomena in the Ukrainian Carpathians]. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1973. 200 p.
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- Ivus G. P., Semergey-Chumachenko A. B. Kultura narodov Prichernomorya – Culture of the Peoples of Black Sea Regions, 2006, no. 73, pp. 156–158. (In Russian)
- Byizova N. L., Glazunov V. G. Trudy GMTs SSSR – Proc. HMC USSR, 1985, issue 260, pp. 72–87. (In Rus-sian)
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- Ivus G. P., Kivganov A. F., Timofeev V. E. Struynyye techeniya pogranichnogo sloya atmosfery [Jet streams of the boundary layer of the atmosphere]. Kyyiv: EMC HE at the Ministry of Higher Education of the USSR, 1991. 49 p.
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- Brandon Storm, Jimy Dudhia, Sukanta Basu, Andy Swift, Ian Giammanco. Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model on Forecasting Low-level Jets: Implica-tions for Wind Energy. Wind Energy, 2008. DOI: 10.1002/we.288.
- Song J, Liao K, Coulter R. L, Lesht B. M. Climatology of the low-level jet at the Southern Great Plains atmospheric boundary layer experiments site. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 2005, no. 44, pp. 1593–1606.
Authors: Gopchenko Е., Ovcharuk V., Romanchuk М.
Title: Improvement of normative and calculated base for determine the maximim runoff of rain and spring floods
Introduction. The article substantiates the methodological basis for the valuation of the design characteristics
of extremely high water discharges of spring flood and storm floods, which pose a great dangers for hydraulic
structures and their use in river basins, as well as settlements. During the construction of engineering
structures and their operation (bridges, flood protection dams and others) planners are orienting generally the
size and flood excess probability. Given the large number of proposed theoretical models for determination of
floods characteristics made they suitable for classification. To different categories include: a formula related to
the original model in the form of geometric shapes, method of riverbeds isochrones and the limit intensity formula.
Purpose. The authors of the theoretically justify a single structural basis for the full range of catchments areas
of rivers regardless of genetic types of floods. The difference concerns only the size of the watershed.
Methods. The scientific and methodological base is based on the use of the geometric structure of singlemodal
hydrographs of slope inflow and channel flow. In order to simplify the calculation scheme, hydrographs
are considered in an extended time format, starting with the maximum water discharge. This, in turn, facilitates
the spatiotemporal generalization of the characteristics of both the slope influx and the hydrographs of the
Results. The results of research related to improving the scientific and methodical base for the valuation of
the design characteristics of a maximum runoff of rain and spring floods are represented.
Given that the formulas of maximum runoff based on models of slope and riverbed hydrographs, it suggest
that there are need not only the riverbed data, but and data of slope influx. In this case, researchers have
trouble with determination of parameters such as the duration of the slope inflow and maximum modules of
Shown that formulas to calculate and regulation of maximum runoff characteristics can be obtained on the
basis of direct analysis of single-modal runoff hydrograph..
Conclusion. As a model authors are using the geometric schematization of single-modal hydrographs of
slope and channel runoff. The calculation method proposed by the authors, In contrast to the many known,
differs limited number of parameters and bringing it to the level of practical use.
Attention is drawn to the fact that the method has not limitations in terms of genetic types of flood, as well
as the size of the watershed.
Authors: Gopchenko Е., Ovcharuk V., Romanchuk М.
Tags: hydrograph of riverbed runoff; maximum flow; rain floods; slope inflow; spring floods; весеннее половодье; дождевые паводки; максимальный сток; русловой гидрограф; склоновый приток
- Sokolovskiy D. L. Rechnoy stok [River runoff]. Gidrometeoizdat, 1968. 538 p.
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- Manual for the determination of calculated hydrological characteristics. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1984. 447 p. (In Russian)
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metodov. Shestoe izdanie. WMO-168, 2012. 324 p.)
- Ovcharuk V., Todorova O. Determination of characteristics maximal runoff Mountain Rivers in Crimea. J. Fundam. Appl. Sci., 2016, vol. 8 (2), pp 525-541. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v8i2.23
Authors: Dzham О.А., Danylyuk I.V.
Title: Dynamics of state of surface water quality of the Western Bug river basin
Problem. The Western Bug is a cross-border river which makes it to be an interesting object for research. Dynamics of the state of the basin system is clearly observed through seasonal and perennial fluctuations of concentrations of components of river water’s salt composition. Therefore, the study of the current environmental state of geosystem is based on inves-tigating hydrochemical flow of substance.
Purpose. The purpose consists in establishment of hydro-chemical parameters of water resources’ quality and its changes in the Western Bug basin over 2011-2014.
Methods of research. Change of concentrations of chemical ingredients in the Western Bug water was determined via the method of comparison of water chemical composition at the river stations. Time dynamics is represented using graphical methods.
Basic results of research. Data of basic statistical characteristics were structured with regard to investigated chemical parameters of water across the stations, their spatial distribution along the Western Bug and its tributaries. The dynamics of the main hydro-chemical ingredients in the Western Bug over 2011-2014 was also analyzed. In particular, the time concentration changes of BOD5, COD, nitrates, nitrites, saline ammonia, sulfates, phosphates, chlorides were determined across the riverbed of the Western Bug. Conduction of comparative analysis of concentrations of components of salt composition of river water at the specified station also took place. Qualitative characteristics of runoff of chemical compounds in waters of the Western Bug from the territory of Ukraine were obtained. The influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the formation of chemical composition and quality of river water of the Western Bug basin were identified and investigated.
Conclusions. According to the hydrologic and ecological research during 2011-2014 the stations of Lviv region are characterized by considerable excess of pollutants’ content at when compared with established state standards. The reason for this phenomenon consist in ineffective operation of the system of sewage treatment facilities in Lviv region that needs modernization and implementation of new envi-ronmental technologies.
Authors: Dzham О.А., Danylyuk I.V.
Tags: basin of the Western Bug river; dynamics of state of basin system; hydro-chemical properties of water; quality of surface waters; sources of pollution; бассейн р. Западный Буг; гидрохимия воды; динамика состояния бассейновой системы; источники загрязнения; качество поверхностных вод
- Bedunkova O. O., Stetsyuk L. M. Analiz osoblyvostey formuvannya yakosti vody richok Zakhidnoho Polissya [Analysis of the peculiarities of formation water quality of Western Polissya rivers]. http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/portal/ Chem_Biol/ 2009_1/v450. pdf.-24.10.2011.
- Zabokryts’ka M. R. About current hydrochemical regime of Western Bug and its tributaries. Nauk. pr. UkrNDGMI – Proc. USRHMI, 2003, issue. 251, pp. 135 – 140. (In Ukrainian).
- Klymenko N. A. Division into districts of the basin of the river Western Bug depending on the anthropogenic load. Materialy VII Mezhdynar. konf [Proc. VII International conf.]. Warsaw, 2005, pp. 201 – 206. (In Russian).
- Pan’kiv R., Kost’ M., Sakhnyuk I. Ecological assessment of waters quality of upper part of the Western Bug basin. Heolohiya i heokhimiya rodyuchykh kopalyn [Geology and geochemistry of fertile resources], 2013, no. 1–2, pp. 107–113. (In Ukrainian).
- Kurhanevych L. P. Ekoloho-heomorfolohichnyy analiz baseynu Zakhidnoho Buhu [Ecological geomorphological analysis of the basin of the Western Bug]. Leningrad: Mer-kator, 1997, pp. 137 – 139.
- Koval’chuk I. P. Ekoloho-heomorfolohichni problemy intensyvno-meliorovanykh baseyniv malykh rik [Ecological geomorphological problems of intensive-meliorative basins of small rivers]. Kyiv: Znannya, 1992, pp 107 – 108.
- Аnisimova G. M. Vzayemozvyazky v systemi «naselennya-dovkillya» v baseyni Zakhidnoho Buhu: zb.nauk. pr. [The relationships in the «population-environment» system in the basin of the Western Bug: coll. sci. work]. Lviv: Vyd-vo L’viv. Un-tu, 1994. 85 p.
- Timchenko Z. V. Otsinka ekolohichnoho stanu malykh richok [The assessment of ecological state of small rivers ]. Lutsk: RVV «Vezha», The Lesia Ukrainka Volyn State University , 2000, pp 317 – 320.
- Romanenko V. D. Metodyka ekolohichnoyi otsinky yakosti poverkhnevykh vod za vidpovidnymy kryteriyamy [The methods of ecological assessment of surface water quality by appropriate criterions]. Kyiv: Symvol-T, 1998. 28 p.
- Hil’chevs’kyy V. K., Osadchyy V. І., Kurylo S. M. Osnovy hidrokhimiyi [Foundations of hydrochemistry]. Кyyiv: Nika-Tsentr, 2012, pp. 267 – 270.
Authors: Tuchkovenko Yu.S., Kozlov M.O.
Title: Current water balance of Khadzhibeyskyi liman
The article evaluates inputs of various natural and anthropogenic factors to the formation of water balance of Khadzhibeyskyi Liman under the present-day conditions. We discovered that in the latest decades, due to climate changes, annual deficiency in the liman’s natural water balancedoubled. In order to compensate this deficiency the liman should be replenished with water from anthropogenic sources, the most significant of which include discharge from the Pivnichna biological treatment plant and two drainage pump stations.
Study of anthropogenic factors’ impact on annual variability of the liman’s water level was carried out using a water balance model verified based on observations conducted in 2006-2010. Based on the modelling results it was found that in order to stabilize the liman’s water level and to prevent existence of long-term tendencies of its significant increase or decrease, it is expedient to discharge water from the Pivnichna biological treatment plant into the liman in May-September. During other months water can be discharged into adjacent water area of the Black Sea. In case no water discharge from anthropogenic sources is initiated but disposed into the sea instead, the yearly decline of the liman’s water level would be equal to 0.40 m on an average. Continual overthe-year water discharge from the Pivnichna biological treatment plant and other anthropogenic sources into the liman would ensure a yearly average water level rise of 0.2 m.
Authors: Tuchkovenko Yu.S., Kozlov M.O.
Tags: Khadzhibeyskyi Liman; modelling; regulation; the Black Sea; water balance; water level; водный баланс; моделирование; регулирование; уровень воды; Хаджибейский лиман; Черное море
- Tuchkovenko Yu. S., Ivanov V. A., Sapko О. Yu. Otsenka vliyaniya beregovykh antropogennykh istochnikov na kachestvo vod Odesskogo rayona severo-zapadnoy chasti Chernogo morya [Assessment of coastal anthropogenic sources impact on water quality in north-western part of Black Sea near Odessa]. Marine Hydrophysical Institute of NASU; Odessa State Environmental University. Sevasto-pol, 2011. 169 p.
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- Aktual’nye problemy limanov severo-zapadnogo Prichernomor’ya [Actual problems of estuaries of North-Western Black Sea Region]. Odessa, 2012. 224 p. (Eds: Yu. S. Tuchkovenko, E. D. Gopchenko).
- Water balance of Khadzhibei estuary under various conditions of its existence: Final research report (Research leader Ye. D. Gopchenko). Database of the State Scientific Organisation “Ukrainian Institute of Scientific and Technical Expertise and Information”, library of Odessa State Environmental University, State registration no. 0111U010352, 2011. 86 p. (In Ukrainian)
- Grib O. M. Methodology of assessment of probable overfill of Khadzhibei estuary – reservoir (by the example of May of 2015). Natural resource potential of Kuyalnik and Khadzhibei estuaries, the territory between the estuaries: Modern state, outlook of development: Proceedings of All-Ukrainian theoretical and practical conference (Odessa, 18-20 November 2015). Odessa: TES, 2015, pp. 34-37. (In Ukrainian)
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- A project of maximum permissible discharge of pollutants, exported with the returned water from the enterprises of an “INFOXVODOKANAL” affiliated branch into the internal sea water area of the Black Sea and the Dniestr river. State Scientific Organisation “The Research and Development Institute of the Merchant Marine of Ukraine”. Odessa, 2010. 209 p. (In Russian)
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- Loboda N. S., Serbova Z. F., Bozhok Yu. V. Impact of climate change on water resources of Ukraine in present and future conditions (under scenarios of global warming А1В). Ukr. gìdrometeorol. ž. – Ukr. hydrometeor. J., 2014, no. 15, pp. 149-159. http://uhmj.odeku.edu.ua/en/ category/2014-en-2/15-en-2/ (In Ukrainian)
- Loboda N. S., Bozhok Yu. V. Water resources of Ukraine in the XXI century under climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5). Ukr. gìdrometeorol. ž. – Ukr. hydrometeor. J., 2016, no. 17, pp. 117-122. http://uhmj.odeku.edu.ua/en/category/2016-en/17-en/ (In Ukrainian)
- Assessment of hydroecological state of the upper part of Khadzhibei estuary from Yegorovka to Altestove and development of recommendation on improvement of water regime and renovation of its biological resources. Final research report (research leader N.S. Loboda). Database of the State Scientific Organisation “Ukrainian Institute of Scientific and Technical Expertise and Information”, library of Odessa State Environmental University, State registration № 0111U010351, 2011. 263 p. (In Ukrainian)
- Sapko O. Yu., Tuchkovenko Yu. S. Tendencies in change of anthropogenic loading on off-shore waters of Odessa district of north-western part of Black Sea. Vìsn. Odes. derž. ekol. Unìv. – Bull. of OSENU, 2010, vol. 9, pp. 173-177. http://bulletin.odeku.edu.ua/en/ category/2010-en/9-en/ (In Russian)
Authors: Bogatova Yu.I., Sekundak L.Yu., Kirsanova E.V.
Title: Quality of aquatic environment of Khadzhibeyskyi liman in summer, 2016
The article describes the quality of the aquatic environment of Khadzhibeyskyi Liman (one of the largest closed reservoirs of the north-western Black Sea region) based on the analysis of the results of hydrochemical studies conducted in July 2016. This is a valuable balneological, recreational and fishery reservoir whose southern part has been accepting sewage water from Odessa for over 100 years. According to hydrochemical indicators ecosystem of the southern part of the liman is characterized as eutrophic with a high level of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds caused by anthropogenic discharge from the Severnaya Biological Treatment Station. High concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (0.100 mgN·m-3), nitrites (0.102 mgN·dm-3) and maximum Liman’s concentration of nitrates (1.629 mgN·dm-3) were discovered in the surface layer near the functioning discharge of the Biological Treatment Station with high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (0.772 mgN·dm-3) and phosphates (0.457 mgP·dm-3) observed in the near-bottom layer.
During monitoring near-bottom hypoxia was recorded at the stations with a depth of 8–12 m. It developed after settling and decomposition of dead suspended organic matter (phytoplankton) under conditions of slow hydrodynamics. Maximum Liman’s concentrations of ammonium nitrogen, phosphates and silicon were observed in the Liman’s near-bottom layer at the stations with hypoxia.
Liman’s bottom sediments perform a cumulative function and determine the intensity of substance flows at the “water-bottom sediments” border, have influence on its hydrochemical regime. Concentrations of mineral and organic substances in bottom sediments’ pore water are several times higher than the ones in the Liman’s near-bottom layer, especially at the stations with hypoxia.
Authors: Bogatova Yu.I., Sekundak L.Yu., Kirsanova E.V.
Tags: anthropogenic discharge; biogenic substances; bottom sediments; hydrochemical regime; Khadzhibeyskyi Liman; антропогенные стоки; биогенные вещества; гидрохимический режим; донные отложения; Хаджибейский лиман
- Gopchenko E. D., Shakirzanova Zh. R. Assessment of the filling of the Hadzhibey estuary with surface waters and long-term forecasting of its condition in the spring period of the year. Aktual’nye problemy limanov severozapadnogo Prichernomor’ya [Actual problems of estuaries of North-West of the Black Sea]. Odessa: TES, 2011, pp. 69-207. (In Russian)
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Authors: Kruglyak Yu.A., Kryzhanovskaya T.V.
Title: Non-equillibrium green’s functions method in matrix represenatation. 4. Quantum interference and dephasing
The following topics are discussed in the frame of the «bottom – up» approach of modern nanoelectronics: a super-brief but hopefully self-containing introduction to the Hamiltonian matrix whose eigenvalues tell us the allowed energy levels in the channel. However, the Hamiltonian describes an isolated channel and we can not talk about the steady-state resistance of an isolated chan-nel without bringing in the contacts and the battery connected across it. Non-equilibrium Green’s functions method in matrix presentation was initially formulated and applied to model transport problems for 1D and 2D conductors using a nearest neighbor orthogonal tight-binding model in the frame of the «bottom – up» approach of modern nanoelectronics. General method to account for electric contacts in Schrödinger equation to solve electron quantum transport problems is given. There are also discussed the elastic and spin dephasing modeling, account for non-coherent processes using Buttiker probe, 1D conductor with two and more scatterers, quantum interference, strong and weak localization, potential drop across scatterers, quantum oscillations in NEGF method without dephasing and with its account under phase and impulse relaxation regimes, destructive and constructive interference effects, four-component description of spin transport with account for dephasing and ending with discussion of quantum nature of classics including spin coherence and pseudo-spin formalism.
Authors: Kruglyak Yu.A., Kryzhanovskaya T.V.
Tags: coherence; constructive interference; dephasing; destructive interference; impulse relaxation; molecular electronics; nanoelectronics; nanophysics; NEGF method; phase relaxation; pseudospin; quantum interference; spin coherence; spin transport; strong localization; weak localization; деструктивна інтерференція; дефазировка; імпульсна релаксація; квантова інтерференція; когерентність; конструктивна інтерференція; метод НРФГ; нанофизика; наноэлектроника; псевдоспин; сильна локалізація; слабка локалізація; спинова когерентність; транспорт спинів; фазова релаксація
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- Kruglyak Yu. О., Strіkha M. V. Lessons of nanoelectronics: spin transport and quantum spin Hall effect by «bottom – up» approach. Sensor Electronics Microsys. Tech., 2014, vol. 11, no. 2, pp. 5–22. (In Ukrainian)
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Authors: Kruglyak Yu.A., Remenyak L.V.
Title: Thermoelectric coefficients in generalized electron transport model approach
General issues of electronic conductivity and the causes for the current flow, role of electro-chemical potentials, Fermi functions, and Fermi window for conduction are discussed, as well as there given detailed description of the Landauer elastic resistor model, different transport regimes from ballistic to diffusion and in between, conductivity modes, and transmission coefficient in the frame of the «bottom – up» approach of modern nanoelectronics. Generalized model of electron transport in the linear response regime developed by R. Landauer, S. Datta, and M. Lundstrom with application to the resistors of any dimension, any size and arbitrary dispersion working in ballistic, quasi-ballistic or diffusion regime is summerized.
In summary, the Landauer equation for the conductivity describes the electron transport in the conductor from the very general positions. The conductivity is proportional to the fundamental constants q and h, which determine the quantum of conductance, associated with contacts. The conductivity depends on the number of modes of conductance and transmission coefficient, representing the probability that an electron with energy E injected by one contact to reach another contact. Conductivity we finally find by integrating the contributions from all modes of conduction. The equations valid for 1D, 2D and 3D conductors for ballistic nanoreactors as well as for massive conductors.
Authors: Kruglyak Yu.A., Remenyak L.V.
Tags: integrals of the Fermi - Dirac; molecular electronics; nanoelectronics; nanophysics; thermoelectric coefficients; молекулярная электроника; нанофизика; наноэлектроника; термоэлектрические
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- Kruglyak Yu.O., Strikha M.V. Thermoelectric phenomena and devices in the Kgeneralized model of electron transport.Sensor Electronics Microsys. Tech. 2015, vol. 12, no. 4. pp. 5–18. (In Ukrainian)
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- Glushkov A.V. Relativistic and correlation effects in spectra of atomic systems. Odessa: Astroprint, 2006.
- Glushkov A.V., Khetselius O.Y., Svinarenko A. A. Prepe-litsa G. P. Energy approach to atoms in a laser field and quantum dynamics with laser pulses of different shape . In: Coherence and Ultrashort Pulse Laser Emission. Intech, 2010, p. 159. (Ed.: Dr. F. J. Duarte)