Authors: Bunyakova Yu.Ya.
Title: Analysis of the current system of environmental taxation in Ukraine and foreign experience
The article analyzes the current system of environmental taxation of economic activity in Ukraine associated with its impact on natural environment. Today’s relevance of environmental taxation and low effectiveness of this tool in regulating the level of environmental safety in Ukraine force to use experience of developed countries, especially of the European Union, where such taxes are implemented in more effective manner. Analysis of foreign experience of applying environmental taxes and charges shows a significant diversity of their types and therefore different effects that can be achieved after their use. It is important to consider this fact when improving environmental taxation in Ukraine. Introduction of a specific type of environmental tax requires detailed
consideration of experience of developed countries, the obtained results and comparing their experience to determine effectiveness and characteristics of a particular tax. The main difference between the national system of environmental taxation and the European one is that mechanisms of its implementation remain to be incomplete when addressing environmental problems and do not create any significant incentives for economic agents when it comes to nature-conservative measures. It is clear that a purely fiscal concept of the mechanism of collecting funds for exploitation of natural resources with ignoring regulatory, restrictive and stimulating functions does not
contribute to the efficient use of natural wealth. It is shown that the current environmental taxation system of Ukraine needs implementation of further reforms and development aimed at reducing negative impact of the national economy on the natural environment, reducing environmental capacity of gross domestic product, stimulating transition to sustainable development.
Authors: Bunyakova Yu.Ya.
Tags: environmental tax; penalties; reform; Tax Code; taxation; the European Union; взимание; Европейский союз; Налоговый кодекс; налогообложение; реформа; экологический налог
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Authors: Youssef El Hadri, Khokhlov V.M.
Title: Mode of the wind speed in Morocco in early XXI century
The energy system in Morocco is strongly dependent on external energy markets. Currently, Morocco imports more than 93% of energy. In 2009, the Moroccan Government has developed a National Energy Strategy containing ways to increase a generation of renewable energy in the country. This study aims to identify features of current wind regime in Morocco in order to assess the resources of wind energy.
The data on the wind speed from 25 meteorological stations in Morocco for the period 2005-2014 were used to calculate the values of annual mean wind speed and the frequency of different wind speeds. The comparison of annual mean wind speed for the periods 1980-1999 and 2005-2014 showed that the recent values have increased especially in 2011-2014.
Light wind prevails at most stations of Morocco. Nevertheless, moderate and fresh wind prevails near the Gibraltar Strait, the Atlantic coast and in the southern part of country. These stations are Tan-Tan and Dakhla located in the southern part of the Atlantic coast. At these stations, the frequency of wind speeds below 5 m/s is the 34% and 17% respectively. This allows concluding that the conditions for wind power plants are favorable in southern part of the Atlantic coast.
Authors: Youssef El Hadri, Khokhlov V.M.
Tags: Frequency; Wind Conditions; wind speed; повторяемость; режим ветра; скорость ветра
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- Born K., Christoph M., Fink A. H., Knippertz P., Paeth H., Speth P. Moroccan Climate in the Present and Future: Combined view from Observational Data and Regional Climate Scenarios. Climatic Changes and Water Resources in the Middle East and North Africa: Part of the series Environmental Science and Engineering, 2008. pp. 29-45. (Eds.: Zereini F. H., Hötzl A. A.)
- Gavrilov N. I. Marokko [Morocco]. Moscow: Geografgiz, 1998. 187 p.
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Authors: Ivus G.P., Ahayar E.V., Semergei-Chumachenko А.В., Dmytrenko A.P.
Title: Synoptic processes during formation of low-tropospheric streams over the territory of southern Ukraine in warm half-year
Identification and forecasting of jet streams within at low levels of the atmosphere is one of the challenging tasks of synoptic meteorology. The reason for such difficulties lies in diversity of physical mechanisms causing increased air flow speed in a narrow zone within the boundary layer of the atmosphere.
Specification of the type of macro- and mesoscale baric fields which contribute to formation of low jets can greatly facilitate development of forecasting techniques.
According to radiosonde data low jets in warm half-years of 2001-2010 were detected over two locations (Odessa and Simferopol). Once estimate of their structural parameters had been complete a prevailing wind direction at a stream core and a type of temperature stratification with a studied wind anomaly in place were determined.
Synoptic situations over the territory of south-western Ukraine taking into account the elementary circulation mechanisms proposed by B. L. Dzerdzeevsky, V. M. Kurganskaya and Z. M. Vitvitskaya.were standardized.
A catalogue bringing all the information about structure and conditions of formation of low streams together was developed and compiled.
Circulation processes of warm half-year over the regions in question were characterized as such that favour formation of low-level jet streams.
The most probable macroscale atmospheric processes and types of synoptic situations which create conditions for formation of the most intense low-tropospheric jets over the south-western part of Ukraine were singled out taking into consideration physical and geographical features of research locations.
Authors: Ivus G.P., Ahayar E.V., Semergei-Chumachenko А.В., Dmytrenko A.P.
Tags: elementary circulation mechanism; intensity; lower-level jet streams; standardizing; synoptic processes; интенсивность; синоптические процессы; струйные течение нижних уровней; типизация; элементарный циркуляционный механизм
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- Ivus G. P., Efimov V. A. Fizika antitsiklogeneza [Physics of Anticycogenesis]. Kyyiv: KNT, 2005. 208 p.
- Ivus G. P. Specializovani prognozy pogody [Specialized Weather Forecast]. Odessa: TES Publ., 2012, 407 p.
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- Ivus G. P., Semergey-Chumachenko A. B. Kultura narodov Prichernomorya – Culture of the Peoples of Black Sea Regions, 2006, no. 73, pp. 156–158. (In Russian)
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- Ivus G. P., Kivganov A. F., Timofeev V. E. Struynyye techeniya pogranichnogo sloya atmosfery [Jet streams of the boundary layer of the atmosphere]. Kyyiv: EMC HE at the Ministry of Higher Education of the USSR, 1991. 49 p.
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- Brandon Storm, Jimy Dudhia, Sukanta Basu, Andy Swift, Ian Giammanco. Evaluation of the Weather Research and Forecasting Model on Forecasting Low-level Jets: Implica-tions for Wind Energy. Wind Energy, 2008. DOI: 10.1002/we.288.
- Song J, Liao K, Coulter R. L, Lesht B. M. Climatology of the low-level jet at the Southern Great Plains atmospheric boundary layer experiments site. Journal of Applied Meteorology, 2005, no. 44, pp. 1593–1606.
Authors: Gopchenko Е., Ovcharuk V., Romanchuk М.
Title: Improvement of normative and calculated base for determine the maximim runoff of rain and spring floods
Introduction. The article substantiates the methodological basis for the valuation of the design characteristics
of extremely high water discharges of spring flood and storm floods, which pose a great dangers for hydraulic
structures and their use in river basins, as well as settlements. During the construction of engineering
structures and their operation (bridges, flood protection dams and others) planners are orienting generally the
size and flood excess probability. Given the large number of proposed theoretical models for determination of
floods characteristics made they suitable for classification. To different categories include: a formula related to
the original model in the form of geometric shapes, method of riverbeds isochrones and the limit intensity formula.
Purpose. The authors of the theoretically justify a single structural basis for the full range of catchments areas
of rivers regardless of genetic types of floods. The difference concerns only the size of the watershed.
Methods. The scientific and methodological base is based on the use of the geometric structure of singlemodal
hydrographs of slope inflow and channel flow. In order to simplify the calculation scheme, hydrographs
are considered in an extended time format, starting with the maximum water discharge. This, in turn, facilitates
the spatiotemporal generalization of the characteristics of both the slope influx and the hydrographs of the
Results. The results of research related to improving the scientific and methodical base for the valuation of
the design characteristics of a maximum runoff of rain and spring floods are represented.
Given that the formulas of maximum runoff based on models of slope and riverbed hydrographs, it suggest
that there are need not only the riverbed data, but and data of slope influx. In this case, researchers have
trouble with determination of parameters such as the duration of the slope inflow and maximum modules of
Shown that formulas to calculate and regulation of maximum runoff characteristics can be obtained on the
basis of direct analysis of single-modal runoff hydrograph..
Conclusion. As a model authors are using the geometric schematization of single-modal hydrographs of
slope and channel runoff. The calculation method proposed by the authors, In contrast to the many known,
differs limited number of parameters and bringing it to the level of practical use.
Attention is drawn to the fact that the method has not limitations in terms of genetic types of flood, as well
as the size of the watershed.
Authors: Gopchenko Е., Ovcharuk V., Romanchuk М.
Tags: hydrograph of riverbed runoff; maximum flow; rain floods; slope inflow; spring floods; весеннее половодье; дождевые паводки; максимальный сток; русловой гидрограф; склоновый приток
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- Gopchenko E. D., Ovcharuk V. A., Romanchuk M. E. A method for calculating characteristics of maximal river runoff in the absence of observational data: Case study of Ukrainian rivers. Water Resources. Pleiades, 2015, vol. 42, issue 3, pp. 285-291.
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- Manual for the determination of calculated hydrological characteristics. Leningrad: Gidrometeoizdat, 1984. 447 p. (In Russian)
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metodov. Shestoe izdanie. WMO-168, 2012. 324 p.)
- Ovcharuk V., Todorova O. Determination of characteristics maximal runoff Mountain Rivers in Crimea. J. Fundam. Appl. Sci., 2016, vol. 8 (2), pp 525-541. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v8i2.23
Authors: Dzham О.А., Danylyuk I.V.
Title: Dynamics of state of surface water quality of the Western Bug river basin
Problem. The Western Bug is a cross-border river which makes it to be an interesting object for research. Dynamics of the state of the basin system is clearly observed through seasonal and perennial fluctuations of concentrations of components of river water’s salt composition. Therefore, the study of the current environmental state of geosystem is based on inves-tigating hydrochemical flow of substance.
Purpose. The purpose consists in establishment of hydro-chemical parameters of water resources’ quality and its changes in the Western Bug basin over 2011-2014.
Methods of research. Change of concentrations of chemical ingredients in the Western Bug water was determined via the method of comparison of water chemical composition at the river stations. Time dynamics is represented using graphical methods.
Basic results of research. Data of basic statistical characteristics were structured with regard to investigated chemical parameters of water across the stations, their spatial distribution along the Western Bug and its tributaries. The dynamics of the main hydro-chemical ingredients in the Western Bug over 2011-2014 was also analyzed. In particular, the time concentration changes of BOD5, COD, nitrates, nitrites, saline ammonia, sulfates, phosphates, chlorides were determined across the riverbed of the Western Bug. Conduction of comparative analysis of concentrations of components of salt composition of river water at the specified station also took place. Qualitative characteristics of runoff of chemical compounds in waters of the Western Bug from the territory of Ukraine were obtained. The influence of natural and anthropogenic factors on the formation of chemical composition and quality of river water of the Western Bug basin were identified and investigated.
Conclusions. According to the hydrologic and ecological research during 2011-2014 the stations of Lviv region are characterized by considerable excess of pollutants’ content at when compared with established state standards. The reason for this phenomenon consist in ineffective operation of the system of sewage treatment facilities in Lviv region that needs modernization and implementation of new envi-ronmental technologies.
Authors: Dzham О.А., Danylyuk I.V.
Tags: basin of the Western Bug river; dynamics of state of basin system; hydro-chemical properties of water; quality of surface waters; sources of pollution; бассейн р. Западный Буг; гидрохимия воды; динамика состояния бассейновой системы; источники загрязнения; качество поверхностных вод
- Bedunkova O. O., Stetsyuk L. M. Analiz osoblyvostey formuvannya yakosti vody richok Zakhidnoho Polissya [Analysis of the peculiarities of formation water quality of Western Polissya rivers]. http://www.nbuv.gov.ua/portal/ Chem_Biol/ 2009_1/v450. pdf.-24.10.2011.
- Zabokryts’ka M. R. About current hydrochemical regime of Western Bug and its tributaries. Nauk. pr. UkrNDGMI – Proc. USRHMI, 2003, issue. 251, pp. 135 – 140. (In Ukrainian).
- Klymenko N. A. Division into districts of the basin of the river Western Bug depending on the anthropogenic load. Materialy VII Mezhdynar. konf [Proc. VII International conf.]. Warsaw, 2005, pp. 201 – 206. (In Russian).
- Pan’kiv R., Kost’ M., Sakhnyuk I. Ecological assessment of waters quality of upper part of the Western Bug basin. Heolohiya i heokhimiya rodyuchykh kopalyn [Geology and geochemistry of fertile resources], 2013, no. 1–2, pp. 107–113. (In Ukrainian).
- Kurhanevych L. P. Ekoloho-heomorfolohichnyy analiz baseynu Zakhidnoho Buhu [Ecological geomorphological analysis of the basin of the Western Bug]. Leningrad: Mer-kator, 1997, pp. 137 – 139.
- Koval’chuk I. P. Ekoloho-heomorfolohichni problemy intensyvno-meliorovanykh baseyniv malykh rik [Ecological geomorphological problems of intensive-meliorative basins of small rivers]. Kyiv: Znannya, 1992, pp 107 – 108.
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- Timchenko Z. V. Otsinka ekolohichnoho stanu malykh richok [The assessment of ecological state of small rivers ]. Lutsk: RVV «Vezha», The Lesia Ukrainka Volyn State University , 2000, pp 317 – 320.
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- Hil’chevs’kyy V. K., Osadchyy V. І., Kurylo S. M. Osnovy hidrokhimiyi [Foundations of hydrochemistry]. Кyyiv: Nika-Tsentr, 2012, pp. 267 – 270.
Authors: Tuchkovenko Yu.S., Kozlov M.O.
Title: Current water balance of Khadzhibeyskyi liman
The article evaluates inputs of various natural and anthropogenic factors to the formation of water balance of Khadzhibeyskyi Liman under the present-day conditions. We discovered that in the latest decades, due to climate changes, annual deficiency in the liman’s natural water balancedoubled. In order to compensate this deficiency the liman should be replenished with water from anthropogenic sources, the most significant of which include discharge from the Pivnichna biological treatment plant and two drainage pump stations.
Study of anthropogenic factors’ impact on annual variability of the liman’s water level was carried out using a water balance model verified based on observations conducted in 2006-2010. Based on the modelling results it was found that in order to stabilize the liman’s water level and to prevent existence of long-term tendencies of its significant increase or decrease, it is expedient to discharge water from the Pivnichna biological treatment plant into the liman in May-September. During other months water can be discharged into adjacent water area of the Black Sea. In case no water discharge from anthropogenic sources is initiated but disposed into the sea instead, the yearly decline of the liman’s water level would be equal to 0.40 m on an average. Continual overthe-year water discharge from the Pivnichna biological treatment plant and other anthropogenic sources into the liman would ensure a yearly average water level rise of 0.2 m.
Authors: Tuchkovenko Yu.S., Kozlov M.O.
Tags: Khadzhibeyskyi Liman; modelling; regulation; the Black Sea; water balance; water level; водный баланс; моделирование; регулирование; уровень воды; Хаджибейский лиман; Черное море
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- Passport of The Svinaya River. State Design-Research Institute “Ukrpivdendiprovodhosp”. Odessa, 1992. 60 p. (In Russian)
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- Aktual’nye problemy limanov severo-zapadnogo Prichernomor’ya [Actual problems of estuaries of North-Western Black Sea Region]. Odessa, 2012. 224 p. (Eds: Yu. S. Tuchkovenko, E. D. Gopchenko).
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- Grib O. M. Methodology of assessment of probable overfill of Khadzhibei estuary – reservoir (by the example of May of 2015). Natural resource potential of Kuyalnik and Khadzhibei estuaries, the territory between the estuaries: Modern state, outlook of development: Proceedings of All-Ukrainian theoretical and practical conference (Odessa, 18-20 November 2015). Odessa: TES, 2015, pp. 34-37. (In Ukrainian)
- Grib O. M. On possibility of use of the existent artificial reservoir in the mouth of the Svynna river for a decrease in the water level in Khadzhibei estuary for water level tag higher than 1.5 m BS. Natural resource potential of Kuyalnik and Khadzhibei estuaries, the territory between the estuaries: modern state, outlook of development: Proceed-ings of All-Ukrainian theoretical and practical conference (Odessa, 18-20 November 2015). Odessa: TES, 2015, pp. 37-39. (In Ukrainian)
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Authors: Bogatova Yu.I., Sekundak L.Yu., Kirsanova E.V.
Title: Quality of aquatic environment of Khadzhibeyskyi liman in summer, 2016
The article describes the quality of the aquatic environment of Khadzhibeyskyi Liman (one of the largest closed reservoirs of the north-western Black Sea region) based on the analysis of the results of hydrochemical studies conducted in July 2016. This is a valuable balneological, recreational and fishery reservoir whose southern part has been accepting sewage water from Odessa for over 100 years. According to hydrochemical indicators ecosystem of the southern part of the liman is characterized as eutrophic with a high level of nitrogen and phosphorus compounds caused by anthropogenic discharge from the Severnaya Biological Treatment Station. High concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (0.100 mgN·m-3), nitrites (0.102 mgN·dm-3) and maximum Liman’s concentration of nitrates (1.629 mgN·dm-3) were discovered in the surface layer near the functioning discharge of the Biological Treatment Station with high concentrations of ammonium nitrogen (0.772 mgN·dm-3) and phosphates (0.457 mgP·dm-3) observed in the near-bottom layer.
During monitoring near-bottom hypoxia was recorded at the stations with a depth of 8–12 m. It developed after settling and decomposition of dead suspended organic matter (phytoplankton) under conditions of slow hydrodynamics. Maximum Liman’s concentrations of ammonium nitrogen, phosphates and silicon were observed in the Liman’s near-bottom layer at the stations with hypoxia.
Liman’s bottom sediments perform a cumulative function and determine the intensity of substance flows at the “water-bottom sediments” border, have influence on its hydrochemical regime. Concentrations of mineral and organic substances in bottom sediments’ pore water are several times higher than the ones in the Liman’s near-bottom layer, especially at the stations with hypoxia.
Authors: Bogatova Yu.I., Sekundak L.Yu., Kirsanova E.V.
Tags: anthropogenic discharge; biogenic substances; bottom sediments; hydrochemical regime; Khadzhibeyskyi Liman; антропогенные стоки; биогенные вещества; гидрохимический режим; донные отложения; Хаджибейский лиман
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Authors: Kruglyak Yu.A., Kryzhanovskaya T.V.
Title: Non-equillibrium green’s functions method in matrix represenatation. 4. Quantum interference and dephasing
The following topics are discussed in the frame of the «bottom – up» approach of modern nanoelectronics: a super-brief but hopefully self-containing introduction to the Hamiltonian matrix whose eigenvalues tell us the allowed energy levels in the channel. However, the Hamiltonian describes an isolated channel and we can not talk about the steady-state resistance of an isolated chan-nel without bringing in the contacts and the battery connected across it. Non-equilibrium Green’s functions method in matrix presentation was initially formulated and applied to model transport problems for 1D and 2D conductors using a nearest neighbor orthogonal tight-binding model in the frame of the «bottom – up» approach of modern nanoelectronics. General method to account for electric contacts in Schrödinger equation to solve electron quantum transport problems is given. There are also discussed the elastic and spin dephasing modeling, account for non-coherent processes using Buttiker probe, 1D conductor with two and more scatterers, quantum interference, strong and weak localization, potential drop across scatterers, quantum oscillations in NEGF method without dephasing and with its account under phase and impulse relaxation regimes, destructive and constructive interference effects, four-component description of spin transport with account for dephasing and ending with discussion of quantum nature of classics including spin coherence and pseudo-spin formalism.
Authors: Kruglyak Yu.A., Kryzhanovskaya T.V.
Tags: coherence; constructive interference; dephasing; destructive interference; impulse relaxation; molecular electronics; nanoelectronics; nanophysics; NEGF method; phase relaxation; pseudospin; quantum interference; spin coherence; spin transport; strong localization; weak localization; деструктивна інтерференція; дефазировка; імпульсна релаксація; квантова інтерференція; когерентність; конструктивна інтерференція; метод НРФГ; нанофизика; наноэлектроника; псевдоспин; сильна локалізація; слабка локалізація; спинова когерентність; транспорт спинів; фазова релаксація
- Kruglyak Yu. A. Nanoelectronics “bottom – up”: Non-equilibrium Green function method, model transport prob-lems and quantum interference. Science-Rise, 2015, vol. 9, no. 2 (14), pp. 41–72. (In Russian)
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Authors: Kruglyak Yu.A., Remenyak L.V.
Title: Thermoelectric coefficients in generalized electron transport model approach
General issues of electronic conductivity and the causes for the current flow, role of electro-chemical potentials, Fermi functions, and Fermi window for conduction are discussed, as well as there given detailed description of the Landauer elastic resistor model, different transport regimes from ballistic to diffusion and in between, conductivity modes, and transmission coefficient in the frame of the «bottom – up» approach of modern nanoelectronics. Generalized model of electron transport in the linear response regime developed by R. Landauer, S. Datta, and M. Lundstrom with application to the resistors of any dimension, any size and arbitrary dispersion working in ballistic, quasi-ballistic or diffusion regime is summerized.
In summary, the Landauer equation for the conductivity describes the electron transport in the conductor from the very general positions. The conductivity is proportional to the fundamental constants q and h, which determine the quantum of conductance, associated with contacts. The conductivity depends on the number of modes of conductance and transmission coefficient, representing the probability that an electron with energy E injected by one contact to reach another contact. Conductivity we finally find by integrating the contributions from all modes of conduction. The equations valid for 1D, 2D and 3D conductors for ballistic nanoreactors as well as for massive conductors.
Authors: Kruglyak Yu.A., Remenyak L.V.
Tags: integrals of the Fermi - Dirac; molecular electronics; nanoelectronics; nanophysics; thermoelectric coefficients; молекулярная электроника; нанофизика; наноэлектроника; термоэлектрические
- Kruglyak Yu.O., Kruglyak N.E., Strikha M.V. Lessons of Nanoelectronics: Current generation, Ohm’s Law Formulation and Conduction modes in «Bottom – Up» Approach. Sensor Electronics Microsys. Tech, 2012, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 5-29 (In Ukrainian)
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- Kruglyak Yu.O., Strikha M.V. Thermoelectric phenomena and devices in the Kgeneralized model of electron transport.Sensor Electronics Microsys. Tech. 2015, vol. 12, no. 4. pp. 5–18. (In Ukrainian)
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- Glushkov A.V. Relativistic and correlation effects in spectra of atomic systems. Odessa: Astroprint, 2006.
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