The hygienic aspect of drinking water safety and quality can be defined by the indices of epidemic safety, sanitary, chemical and radiation indices, as well as by the optimal content of mineral substances, i.e. a mineral composition being adequate to the physiological need of a human organism: total hardness, total alkalinity, the content of iodine, potassium, calcium, magnesium, sodium, solid residual and fluorine. The article assesses the possible impact of the mineral composition of drinking water on the health of urban agglomerations of Northwest Black Sea Region. The indicators of balanced mineral composition of drinking water, obtained after treatment of river water, mainly meet the normative requirements, but the sodium content is higher and the fluorine content is substantially lower than the optimal value. The values of almost all indices define that the balanced mineral composition deviates from optimal value range in the ground water. The concentrations of calcium, magnesium and sodium ions in the ground water decrease after purification in a pump-room, which further leads to the development of diseases due to deficiency of the essential cations. There is fluorine deficiency in drinking water, both from surface and ground sources of water supply. Long-term consumption of drinking water with an imbalance of essential mineral components can be one of the negative impacts on public health.
Introduction. Improvement of competitiveness of these regions is an important factor for their social and economic development and improvement of competitiveness as a whole. Coastal regions and some coastal areas play significant role for the economy of Ukraine. It has significant resource potential and competitive advantages due to its geographical location, natural, human, industrial and transport potential.
The purpose of this publication is to investigate approaches to economic and environmentally sustainable management of development of coastal regions based on formation of complex organizational and economic measures.
Results. The coastal areas are distinguished by a significant competitive advantage due to their geographical location, natural, human and industrial resources. Today the integrated maritime policy is necessary for Ukraine that has to implement territorial control of the sea.
Management of sustainable regional development as a social and economic category characterizes the connection and relationships of existing management and organizational structures ensuring interaction and coordination of elements within the social and economic system.
Inefficiency of using natural resources of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov is associated with problems of meeting the demands of Ukrainian citizens for fish and other sea products.
Conclusions. Increase of competitiveness of coastal regions implies the transfer to new innovative and organizational forms of development in the form of clusters – sectoral territorial voluntary informal associations of enterprises and organizations and in the form of development and implementation of regional strategies.
Directions for further research should include priorities for development of economic renewal of coastal management on the basis of results of diagnostics of regional development.
Introduction. Ensuring economic growth and improving living standards are some of the most important problems of modern social and economical development of Ukraine and its regions. It is impossible to solve these problems without establishment of socially oriented economy and development of social sphere, including establishment of a tourism and recreational complex (TRC). This complex appears to be one of the factors having a significant impact on health of the nation, human development and completion of the task for health recovery.
The purpose of this publication consists in development and refinement of some theoretical, methodological provisions and practical recommendations aimed at organization of regulation of activities of the region’s tourism and recreational complex. The article covers some problems of organization of regulation of activities of the region’s tourism and recreational complex (TRC) to ensure a unified approach to solving of problems related to formation of its optimal mechanism.
Results. The basis for organizational structure of the regional system of regulation of TRC under modern conditions is represented by an integrated marketing concept providing maximum flexibility for decision-making and enabling integration of regional links in the international market space. The concept of multi-level regulation of TRC appears to be a necessary tool for effective development of regional TRC. Unified system of TRC, taking into account its complexity and interdependence, serves as a subject of regulation in this concept. Formation of sustainable relationships is realized through methods of contacts’ management, and the process of formation of rational management solutions in the sphere of TRC regulation is realized through contacts’ management process. The use of means for monitoring and controlling in the area of regulation of activities of the region’s TRC will allow to solve both general and specific tasks as well as to raise the level of validity of adopted decisions, to solve the tasks aimed at ensuring economic security and integration of the region into the global market space.
Conclusions. In the globalized world ensuring economic security predetermines creation of conditions aimed at formation of a competitive market of services within the region’s TRC. Formation of economic security system will allow to identify and to evaluate possible threats and to implement a complex of measures aimed at stabilization of social and economical situation.
We consider it necessary to use for the practical purposes of organization of regulation of activities of the region’s TRC some system controlling and monitoring tools which may encourage its effective integration into the global market space.
In order to investigate horizontal distribution of hydro-meteorological characteristics, statistical analysis techniques, including multidimensional statistical analysis techniques (for example, factor, cluster analysis etc.) are usually applied. These techniques allow obtaining not only fields of particular characteristic by means of plotting appropriate isolines, but determining entire homogeneous areas with typical representative point which helps to compress information considerably and to reveal boundaries of distribution of certain characteristic within the entire spatial aggregation.
Schemes of zoning of fields of difference for monthly average temperatures “underlying surface-air” at 2 m height, of surface flows of latent heat, of zonal aspects of wind speed in the Northern Atlantic obtained by means of the Universal Iterative Method of Data Clusterization are offered. The obtained clusterization schemes underwent both physical and statistical analyses having good scientific justification. It is shown that distribution of zonal aspect of wind speed has latitudinal direction, and distribution of flows of latent heat and temperature differences has mainly a focal nature. Analysis of variability of boundaries of homogeneous areas, average values of representative vectors, dispersions, mean-square deviations during future time intervals will allow identifying the specific features of climate variability through the example of the fields of hydrometeorological characteristics under study.
Introduction. During last decades, because of decrease of the area of land irrigation, volumes of water intake from the Katlabuh reservoir also significantly decreased and pumping of water from the Danube River stopped at all. All this caused deterioration of water quality. In particular, the salinity of the Katlabuh Lake in recent years exceeds by 2–2,5 times permissible rates for drinking and irrigation water.
Purpose. The purpose consists in analyzing physical and geographic, morphometric, hydrological, hydraulic characteristics of the Katlabuh lake and rivers feeding it; calculation of water balance components of the Katlabuh lake in 2007-2014.
Methods. Well-known statistical methods are used to analyze available materials of observations for calculation of water balance components. Regional methods and effective regulatory documents are used to determine unknown water balance components. The method of water balance is one of fundamental scientific approaches with respect to research of hydrological regime of reservoirs, lakes and ponds.
Results. Results show that precipitation on the water surface of the lake and supply of water from the Danube River flowing by gravity form, to a significant extent, an input portion of water balances. As for loss of water balances it is worth to note that evaporation constitutes the largest percentage with water discharges to the Danube River coming after it. During summer months the water from the Katlabuh Lake supports levels of the system of lakes Lung – Safyan. The values of discrepancies of water balances in 2007-2014 fall within the limits of accuracy of the source information.
Conclusion. The purpose of further developments with regard to the Katlabuh Lake consists in calculation of salinity balances on the basis of water balances which will provide an opportunity to verify accuracy of performed calculations.
Based on monitoring data analysis, the characteristics of the contemporary hydrochemical regime of the formerly closed Kuyalnik Liman, a valuable balneological and recreational object, were compared before and after its connection with the sea (2014-2015). Data showed that filling of the liman with seawater has not worsened its hydrochemical conditions because the content of nutrients (compounds of nitrogen, phosphorus and silicon), determining the biological productivity of the basin, is significantly lower in seawater than in the brine of the liman. After the liman’s recharge by seawater, active development of intrabasin production processes was registered during the warm period, resulting in the formation of autochthonous organic matter (phytoplankton) from which some therapeutic mud will be formed in the future. The input of anthropogenic and natural sources of nutrients in formation of the hydrochemical conditions of the liman was also estimated. In the liman main sources of nutrients were represented by seawater (about 9 mln. m3 during 4 months) – dissolved organic compounds of nitrogen and mineral phosphorus and by atmospheric precipitation (about 16.5 mln. m3 during 11 months in 2015) – dissolved mineral compounds of nitrogen (nitrates) and silicon. Up to 132,000 t of sodium chloride, comprising no more than 1.6 % of the total salt resources of the liman, entered the liman with seawater. The regulated runoff of Bolshoy Kuyalnik river has a low influence on the hydrochemical regime of the liman. The anthropogenic sources of untreated sewage from the adjacent territories containing the ultra-high concentrations of nitrogen (Korsunsovsky ponds) and phosphorus (Luzanovka ponds) mineral compounds have a local influence on the ecosystem, e.g. have relatively low water input.
Introduction. Scientific and practical value of the topic is based on the influence of sea level variation on economic activity in the coastal zone.
Purpose. The purpose of this work is to study surge, seasonal and long-term level variations in the North-Western part of the Black Sea at present time.
Methods of research. Standard methods of mathematical statistics used in hydrometeorology and oceanography such as statistical, correlation and regression analyses were applied.
Results. Over the period from 1947 to 1979 increase of the sea level constituted 11 cm at the station of Odessa, and over the period from 1980 to 2012 the sea level experienced wave fluctuations with a weak negative trend. During the entire period of observation (from 1947 to 2012) the sea level rose up by 14 cm in Odessa, which corresponds to similar estimates for the entire area of the Black Sea. During the period of 1980-2012 the scope of seasonal fluctuations decreased by 25% at the station of Odessa – from 21cm to 15 cm in comparison to the period from 1947 to 1979. The analysis of surge fluctuations of the sea level showed that recurrence of significant (over 30 cm) and very significant (over 50 cm) negative surges is higher than recurrence of positive surge of the same intensity. Over the period of 1980–2012 compared to the period of 1947–1979 recurrence of significant and very significant negative surges decreased by approximately 5%–6% at the station of Odessa. These changes are due to climatic changes of wind speed and direction causing surge fluctuations in the North-Western part of the Black Sea.
Conclusions. Theoretical and practical significance of the work consists in possibility of use of these results for scientific and practical activities. Estimates of variability can be used for navigation, hydrotechnical construction purposes and for operation of hydraulic structures in the coastal area.
The Landauer – Datta – Lundstrom transport model is used to calculate conductivity of resistors of any dimension and scale and of an arbitrary dispersion working in the ballistic or diffusion regime at near 0 K and at higher temperatures. There is also discussed still widely used concept of mobility, as well as the dissipation of heat and the voltage drop in the ballistic resistors.
The goal of this review is to show how to use the Landauer equation for conductance in the absence of temperature difference at the ends of the conductor.
The main results can be briefly formulated as follows: all conductors have a constant resistance even in case of absence of electron scattering. Ballistic resistance is the lower limit of resistance, no matter how small the conductor is. This ballistic limit resistance becomes important even for electronic devices at the room temperature. Ballistic resistance is quantized and the quantum of resistance is represented by fundamental Klitzing constant. The whole area of the transition from ballistic to diffusive transport is interpreted in the LDL model in a standard way with the help of transmission coefficient. Resistors of all dimensions – 1D, 2D and 3D are uniformly treated in the LDL formalism, and the interpretation allows for any type of dispersion relation. In the study of electrical properties of any new material, including nanosystems, it is necessary to begin with the Landauer conductivity equation.
Within the «bottom – up» concept of modern nanoelectronics flows of electrons and heat through a conductor taking into account a respective environment are studied and equilibrium thermodynamics of an energized conductor is developed with emphasis of the role of the Fock states in such concept, accumulation of information in a non-equilibrium state is discussed together with a detailed analysis of the model of information-driven battery and its connection with the Landauer principle on minimum amount of energy required to erase one bit of information which was experimentally proved recently. The concept of quantum entropy is introduced and some aspects of its application are discussed, and topicality of integration of spintronics and magnetronics in connection with upcoming transfer to the spin architecture of computing devices is emphasized. Also a question with respect to possibility of electron cloning in a certain state in the form of numerous identical electrons with the same wave functions is discussed. There are no theorems prohibiting such cloning. It is only necessary to inject numerous electrons prepared in the same way and then to carry out competent processing of measured results. All these issues are dealt by rapidly developing quantum informatics. But it is already obvious that the spin of an electron in comparison with its charge opens up qualitatively new perspectives for information processing.
This article briefly summarizes the Landauer – Datta – Lundstrom electron transport model. Provided a band structure is given, number of conduction modes can be evaluated and, if a model for a mean free pass for backscattering can be established, then the near-equilibrium thermoelectric transport coefficients can be calculated using the final expressions listed below for 1D, 2D, and 3D resistors in ballistic, quasi-ballistic and diffusive linear response regimes when there are differences in both voltage and temperature across the device. The final expressions of thermoelectric transport coefficients through the Fermi – Dirac integrals are collected for 1D, 2D and 3D semiconductors with parabolic band structure and for 2D graphene linear dispersion in ballistic and diffusive regimes with the power law scattering.
Non-equilibrium Green’s functions method is applied to graphene, using the nearest neighbor orthogonal tight-binding model in the frame of the «bottom – up» approach of modern nanoelectronics. There is also a general method to account for electric contacts in Schrödinger equation in order to solve electron quantum transport problems given.
As an illustrative example of the calculation results for the transmission coefficients and the density of states in Huckel model the graphene ribbons are computed in two boundary configurations – Zigzag and Armchair Graphene Nanoribbons. The calculations were performed for ribbons with width of 53 nm and with resonance integral 2.7 eV. Noteworthy is the high density of states at E = 0 for a zigzag configuration of a graphene ribbon. These are so-called edge local states near the Fermi level that are not available in Armchair configuration. It is worth to note the high plausibility of the results obtained even within such a simple model of graphene as in strong-coupling approximation in orthogonal parametric basis with account of the interaction of neighboring atoms only.
In this article a minimum-time problem of deceleration of rotations of a free rigid body is studied analytically and numerically. It is assumed that a body contains a spherical cavity filled with highly viscous fluid. The body is subjected to a retarding torque of viscous friction. It is assumed that such body is dynamically asymmetric. An optimal control law for deceleration of rotations of the body is synthesized, and the corresponding time and phase trajectories are determined.
The asymptotic approach made it possible to determine the control evolutions of the magnitude squared of the elliptic functions modulus k2, dimensionless kinetic energy and kinetic moment. The qualitative properties of the optimal motion were also found.
The obtained results allow us to build a synthesis of the optimal deceleration of rotations of satellites and spacecrafts. They can be used to analyze dynamics of controlled spacecrafts.
Biofuel production steadily grows all over the world. Therefore, for instance, according to the information of the German Biofuel Association (UFOP), biofuel production in Germany makes up 2·106 t/year (3% of the entire fuel market). Use of biofuel is profitable not only due to its low price, but also due to the fact that in the process of biofuel burning carbon dioxide (CO2) is released in the atmosphere in the amount, which plants acting as raw material for biofuel, consume from the air.
However, the residues left after biofuel production are being accumulated at present, thus constituting a real danger for the environment, therefore there exists an objective necessity for further processing and repeated use thereof. The research was conducted with the help of the chromatographic method, infrared spectroscopy, X-ray structure analysis and removal of polarization curves in an electrochemical reactor at different temperatures (298, 323, 343 К), for which reason infrared spectrometer «Specord», X-ray apparatuses УРС-6, УРС-50 and a potentiostat System-5000 were employed. Pt, Ni-Re, Ni were involved as catalyzers both smooth and spread on coal. It was demonstrated that the developed methodology of electrooxidation of residues formed during biodiesel production, involving catalyzers, spread on coal basis, allows to better oxidate the residues formed while biodiesel production and to receive products of electrooxidation that can be used in the industry (accelerants of organic synthesis, ingredients of lotions, emulsifiers, creams for tan).
The conducted research demonstrated prevailing value of d-characteristic surfaces while selecting active catalyzers used while oxidating different substances.
The article deals with the issues of safety of aviation flights under special meteorological conditions which include flights within the areas associated with thunderstorm activity, heavy rainfall, increased electrical activity of the atmosphere etc. This raises the task of providing aviation flights with maximum accurate and timely information from radar means of meteorological information. In order to solve this task we require the most appropriate mathematical models and structures of out-of-order models of radiowaves reflectivity.
The article deals with mathematical models of main characteristics of precipitation (shape, size, orientation). These characteristics, in their turn, determine main characteristics of reflected hydrometeors of radar signals. Backscattering of radar signals is determined by the effective surface of scattering. It shows that it is subject to Rayleigh approximation. Accuracy of approximation depends on size of particles and dielectric constant. Doppler and polarization measurements of particles moving relative to a meteorological radar set and causing a Doppler shift signal are studied. Doppler spectrums describe it through statistical aspects such as average backscattered power, average speed and dispersion. Polarimetric measurements are characterized by several parameters: horizontal reflectivity, differential reflectivity. The article theoretically justifies the use of polarization Doppler parameters of reflected radiowaves in order to perform a subtle analysis of microstructure of meteorological particles.